Lot 152 - Edward Jenner (1749-1823). An important unpublished Autograph Letter Signed, 1802

Edward Jenner (1749-1823). An important unpublished Autograph Letter Signed, 1802

Sold for £7,000


 

Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Pioneer of smallpox vaccination and the father of immunology. An important unpublished Autograph Letter Signed, 'Edw[ar]d Jenner]', Bond Street, [London], 15 April 1802, to the Yorkshire physician Dr [John Glover] Loy, about vaccination and equination, being an enthusiastic and triumphant response to a pamphlet by Dr Loy [dedicated to Jenner] proving Jenner's own early assertions about the equine origin of cowpox, '… I know of no Production on the Vaccine subject which has afforded me more satisfaction, since it was first brought before the Public, than yours. It contains the Experimentum Crucis & has effectually put a stop to the sneers of those little minded Persons who think everything impossible which does not come within the narrow sphere of their own comprehension. I regret that your confirmation of the Fact I had adduced, is not more generally known. You will be surprised to hear that this day before a Committee of the House of Commons, Dr [George] Pearson exalted at having refuted my preposterous supposition respecting the origin of the Cowpox. This circumstance alone will, I trust, induce you to send some of your pamphlets to London where they have a long time been loudly call’d for and I hope too that you will fully advertise it in the London Papers. …', concluding the letter with indirect reference to true and spurious horsepox, 3 pages with further text written horizontally at head and foot of page 4 (inside folds of address panel), some age wear to folds, small contemporary light blue-green stain to one fold intersection in lower part of letter, with very slight acidic loss to paper but barely touching letters and with no loss of sense and away from signature, indistinct circular postmark and seal remains, address and outer panels soiled, 4to, together with a half-length oval albumen print portrait of Dr Loy as an elderly man, 1850s, 9 x 7 cm, passe-partout mount within decorative oval wooden wall frame, inscribed 'Dr Loy' in an old hand to backing paper, overall 27 x 23 cm

(Qty: 2)

From the family of Dr John Glover Loy (1774-1865) by direct descent.

An important unpublished letter concerning the work of Dr Loy which proved Jenner's view that the origins of cowpox was a disease of horses known as 'grease' (horsepox), and supported the role of horsepox in the prevention of smallpox. W.R. LeFanu, A Bio-Bibliography of Edward Jenner 1749-1823 lists only 3 letters from Loy to Jenner, 26 December 1802 and two undated letters from 1803.

See John G. Loy, An Account of Some Experiments on the Origin of Cow-Pox, Whitby, 1801. Dedicated 'To Edward Jenner, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., etc.'. 13 October 1801. [LeFanu, p. 151]

José Esparza, Livia Schrick, Clarissa R. Damaso & Andreas Nitsche, 'Equination (inoculation of horsepox): 'An early alternative to vaccination (inoculation of cowpox) and the potential role of horsepox virus in the origin of the smallpox vaccine', Vaccine, 35:52, 19 December 2017, pp. 7222-7230:

'A little-known fact is that Edward Jenner himself considered that the preventative against smallpox which is present in cowpox lesions, in fact derived from a disease of horses known as “grease” (horsepox). Early in the 19th century, European physicians conducted experiments that seemed to confirm the hypothesis that horsepox could protect against smallpox. Because of the relative rarity of cases of spontaneous cowpox, matter obtained from either cowpox or horsepox was interchangeably used in the protection against smallpox. Congruent with the use of the word vaccination, the inoculation from the horse (Lat. equus) was referred to as “equination”.' (p. 7223).

'The first independent evidence in support of a horsepox role in the prevention of smallpox was published in 1801 by John Glover Loy, a Yorkshire physician. Loy described several cases of people who became infected while treating horses suffering from grease or of individuals inoculated with horse matter that had been passaged in cows. Loy reported that the lesions produced had exactly the appearance of genuine cowpox, and in many cases the individuals were shown to be protected from variolation. A most important observation made by Loy was that “two kinds of Grease exist, differing from each other in the power of giving disease to the human or brute animal”, an observation that mirrors Jenner’s description of “true” and of “spurious” cowpox, which could explain the lack of success of some earlier investigators who attempted to equinate. The work of Loy was not in total agreement with Jenner’s original hypothesis which required that the horse matter was first modified by a passage in the cow before it could fully function as a preventative of smallpox. Nevertheless, Jenner considered that Loy’s work “decisively proves (his) early assertions” about the horse origin of vaccinia, although Jenner never again adopted the horsepox theory in his publications.

Additional confirmation of the horsepox hypothesis was provided by Luigi Sacco, an Italian physician responsible for the early introduction and widespread use of vaccination in Northern Italy. In a letter from Sacco to Jenner, dated 25 March 1803, he explains that after reading the book by John Loy, he was encouraged to continue his own experiments to try to obtain the vaccine from horses with grease.' (pp. 7224-5).

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17. Artist's Resale Rights ("Droit de Suite"). Lots marked with "AR" or another appropriate symbol and referenced as such in the catalogue are subject to the Artist's Resale Right law. The buyer agrees to pay the Auctioneer an amount equal to the resale royalty and the Auctioneer will pay such amount to the artist's collecting agent. Resale royalty applies where the Hammer Price is 1,000 Euro or more and the amount cannot be more than 12,500 Euro per lot.

The amount is calculated as follows:

Royalty For the portion of the Hammer Price (in Euro)

4.00% up to 50,000

3.00% between 50,000.01 and 200,000

1.00% between 200,000.01 and 350,000

0.50% between 350,000.01 and 500,000

0.25% in excess of 500,000

Invoices will be issued in Pounds Sterling. For the purposes of calculating the resale royalty the Pounds Sterling/Euro rate of exchange will be the European Central Bank reference rate on the day of the sale. Please refer to the DACS website www.dacs.org.uk for further details.

18. These conditions shall be governed by and construed in accordance with English Law.

 

Buyer's Premium :

The buyer's premium is 20%, except those lots asterisked (*) in the title for which Value Added Tax (VAT) will be added to the premium, resulting in a buyer's premium of 24% inclusive of VAT. Eligible items include manuscripts, prints, photographs, drawings, framed maps, paintings, pens and other objects which are subject to VAT at a rate of 20% on the buyer's premium as part of the Auctioneers Margin Scheme. VAT zero-rated items such as books, unframed maps and albums are not subject to VAT on the buyer's premium.

Live Auction Charges

An additional commission of 3% plus VAT (3.6% inclusive of VAT) on the hammer price is payable if you use the live auction bidding facility on the Dominic Winter Auctioneers website (dominicwinter.co.uk). This charge will be added to your invoice automatically.

An additional commission of 4.95% plus VAT (5.94% inclusive of VAT) on the hammer price is payable if you use the live auction bidding facility on the ATG Media website (the-saleroom.com). This charge will be added to your invoice automatically.

An additional commission of 3% plus VAT (3.6% inclusive of VAT) on the hammer is payable if you use the live auction bidding facility on the Invaluable website (invaluable.com). This charge will be added to your invoice automatically.

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Payment is preferred by direct Bank Transfer to our bank account. Our bank details will be supplied to you with your invoice.

Payment can be made in cash at the Cashier's Office, either during or after the sale. Alternatively, you can pay by cheque (Pounds Sterling only), please allow 5 working days for the cheque to clear before collection of goods.

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UK Shipping

We are not specialist shippers. Some items, such as framed & glazed or fragile goods, will require specialist handling and buyers will be asked to use Mailboxes or RF Shipping Ltd. (details below).

For non-fragile items and items of reasonably small size, we offer an in-house packing and shipping facility for UK buyers. When possible, purchases will be sent by either Royal Mail Special Delivery or DPD overnight service. The charge for this service is variable (£15 minimum per parcel) and will be added to your invoice. Please note shipments to the Highlands and Islands may require shipment by courier and may be more expensive. Please contact us for a quote before bidding.

For larger packages and fragile goods, we recommend Mailboxes, Pack & Send or RF Shipping Ltd who will collect fully paid-for purchases from us twice a week and liaise with the buyer direct. For more information please contact Sarah Ball by telephone on +44 (0)1285 860006 or email sarah@dominicwinter.co.uk. These companies will require payment direct for their services.